This study, conducted by the Research Triangle Institute International, is focused on the role of the Research Integrity Officer (RIO), the institutional official responsible for implementing the PHS Policies on Research Misconduct (42 C.F.R. 93). The study will examine the responsibilities, authority, qualifications, training, organizational location, role set, resources, and turnover rates of individuals in this critical position. The study will also examine how individual and institutional factors influence the preparedness of the RIO to handle misconduct allegations and the promotion of research integrity. Half of the sample will come from the top 100 NIH-funded institutions and the remaining population will be drawn from the other 1,600 educational or research institutions. The study is expected to be completed in 2008.