The ORI Handbook for Institutional Research Integrity Officers (PDF) is designed as a reference work for institutional officials who have responsibilities related to the handling of allegations of scientific misconduct involving biomedical or behavioral research or research training supported by the PHS including Research Integrity Officers, institutional administrators, inquiry/investigation committee members, and general counsel. According to the PHS regulation (42 C.F.R. 93 § 103):
Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
(a) Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
(b) Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
(c) Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
(d) Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
The handbook is being revised to comply with 42 C.F.R. 93.