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The Ethical Basis of RCRH

The recent course of history in the Western world has been in the direction of greater freedom and self-determination of individuals. A logical result of that has been the movement from paternalism to autonomy in medical care and by extension in medical research. Great impetus to that movement was provided by the atrocities carried out in the name of research by the Nazi German physicians, as described in the reports of the Nuremberg trials. That led directly to the first clear statement of the relationship of research subjects to the investigator and to the research being proposed. ( ). However, a statement of principle, as ethically powerful and persuasive as it was, did not result in uniformly unimpeachable research performance. As a result of considerable consternation over several specific programs of human research in the United States, a national commission was convened under the direction of Kenneth Ryan that issued a report, (The Belmont Report) outlining appropriate research behavior. The commission proposed government control through Institutional Review Boards at research institutions. The report was enacted by Congress to encompass human research carried out under the auspices of a number of Federal agencies, hence The Common Rule. Subsequently the World Health Organization produced the Declaration of Helsinki that supported similar international rules and systems and provided special consideration for the populations of developing countries. That code has been modified and strengthened a number of times.
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Chapter 1
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The Ethical Basis of RCRH

The Nature of Science

Research Integrity

Professionalism in Science

Practical Elements of Responsible Research Conduct



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