This section contains an extensive list of references. The authors of this module have included an annotated list of what they consider to be the most important references regarding this topic.



Table of Contents
1: Annotated Primary References
2: General Background on Mentoring
3: Mentoring Guides & Resources
4: Video Materials


1: Annotated Primary References

Association for Women in Science, 1993. Mentoring Means Future Scientists. Washington, D.C.: Association for Women in Science.
-- A report by the Association for Women in Science on the outcome and findings of the Association‚s three-year Mentoring Project for undergraduate and graduate students. Available for purchase from the Association web site:

Audi R, 1994. On the Ethics of Teaching and the Ideals of Learning. Academe, September-October: 27-36.
-- A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different teaching models and styles. Outlines ideals and describes responsibilities of professors and students to one another.

Flynn JP (ed.), 1997. The Role of the Preceptor: A Guide for Nurse Educators and Clinicians. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
-- Appropriately described by the publisher as "A practical őhow to‚ guide for nursing faculty and administrators who want to set up preceptor programs, guide student clinical experiences, or help orient novice practitioners to the practice setting."

Fort C, Bird SJ, Didion, CJ (eds.), 1993. A Hand Up: Women Mentoring Women in Science. Washington, D.C.: Association for Women in Science.
-- A collection of essays and interviews of female scientists describing their experiences and providing advice and resources for women pursuing careers in science.

Kanigel R, 1986. Apprentice to Genius: The Making of a Scientific Dynasty. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
-- Tells the story of a multigenerational chain of master-apprentice relationships among the famous biomedical scientists Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod, Solomon Snyder, and Candace Pert.

National Academy of Science (NAS), 1997. Advisor, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: NAS.
-- Provides guidance for good mentoring, including a description of the various aspects of mentoring, examples of possible challenges, and recommendations.

National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director, June 2002. A Guide to Training and Mentoring in the Intramural Research Program at NIH.
-- A resource for scientists and trainees at NIH‚s Intramural Research Program, emphasizing the importance of mentoring and describing the major components of mentoring in research, including: providing technical training in all aspects of scientific investigation, modeling responsible and effective behavior, and assisting in career planning.

Noe R, 1988. An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Assigned Mentoring Relationships. Personnel Psychology 41: 457-479.
-- This study is a first attempt to look at contributing factors in successful assigned mentoring relationships. The study confirms that mentoring serves both career and psychosocial functions and shows preliminary findings.

Roberts GC, Sprague RL, 1995. To Compete or to Educate? Mentoring and the Research Climate. Professional Ethics Report Vol. VIII, No. 4.
-- Authors argue that research climates that are highly competitive are more likely to have poor mentoring and be detrimental to graduate students. Available on the web from the archives of the AAAS Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program, at:

Weil V, Arzbaecher R, 1997. Relationships in Laboratories and Research Communities. In Elliot D, Stern J (eds.), Research Ethics: A Reader. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, pp. 69-90.
-- Authors discuss problems that arise in the management of research groups. They assert that conscientious leadership and open and democratic policies are important, given the challenges posed by the absence of consistent, explicit standards, the pervasive competition for funding, and the inherent power imbalance in research settings.

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2: General Background on Mentoring

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3: Mentoring Guides & Resources

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4: Video Materials

Continue to the next section: → Conclusion