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Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing

The purpose of this module is to help students, as well as professionals, identify and prevent questionable practices and to develop an awareness of ethical writing. This guide was written by Miguel Roig, PhD, from St. Johns University with funding from ORI.



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26 Guidelines at a Glance


On ethical writing

   . Plagiarism of ideas
   . Acknowledging the source of our ideas
   . Plagiarism of text
   . Inappropriate paraphrasing
   . Paraphrasing and plagiarism: What the writing guides say
   . Examples of paraphrasing: Good and bad
   . Paraphrasing highly technical language
   . Plagiarism and common knowledge
   . Plagiarism and authorship disputes

Self plagiarism
   . Redundant and Duplicate (i.e., dual) Publications
   . Academic self plagiarism
   . Salami Slicing (i.e., data fragmentation)
   . Copyright Law
   . Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, and Plagiarism
   . Text recycling
   . Forms of acceptable text recycling
   . Borderline/unacceptable cases of text recycling

The Lesser Crimes of Writing
   . Carelessness in citing sources
   . Relying on an abstract or a preliminary version of a paper while citing the published version
   . Citing sources that were not read or thoroughly understood
   . Borrowing extensively from a source but only acknowledging a small portion of what is borrowed
   . Ethically inappropriate writing practices
   . Selective reporting of literature
   . Selective reporting of methodology
   . Selective reporting of results
   . Authorship issues and conflicts of interest
   . Deciding on authorship
   . Establishing authorship
   . Authorship in faculty-student collaborations
   . A brief overview on conflicts of interest

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