The only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time. If we do not penalize false statements made in error, we open up the way, donít you see, for false statements by intention. And of course, a false statement of fact, made deliberately, is the most serious crime a scientist can commit. Ė C.P. Snow
Chapter 5: References and Resources
  Francis, S. (1999) Developing a federal policy on research misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics, 5, 261-272.

Hagan, P. (2001, October 24). Eliminating research fraud. The Scientist. Retrieved from

Kennedy, D. (2002). More questions about research misconduct. Science, 297(5578), 13.

Loui, M. (2002). Seven ways to plagiarize: Handling real allegations of research misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics, 8, 529-539. Martinson, B., Anderson, M., & de Vries, R. (2005). Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435, 737-738.

Mishkin, B. (1999). Scientific misconduct: Present problems and future trends. Science and Engineering Ethics, 5, 283-292.

Monastersky, R. (2005, June 9). Scientific misconduct is rampant, study suggests. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from

Research Ethics
Chapter 5: The Impossible Dream
Discussion and Reflection Questions
Integration Questions
References and Resources

This chapter addresses research misconduct. Upon completion of this chapter, we hope that you can define and identify research misconduct, including fabricating and falsifying data, plagiarism, and abuses of confidentiality. We also hope you learn about institutional and federal consequences for research conduct.

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