Truth is the beginning of every good thing... and he who would be blessed and happy should be from the first a partaker of the truth, for then he can be trusted. Plato

It seems paradoxical that scientific research, in many ways one of the most questioning and skeptical of human activities, should be dependent on personal trust. But the fact is that without trust the research enterprise could not function. Arnold Relman
Chapter 4: References and Resources
  American Association of University Professors (AAUP). (2000). Protecting human beings: Institutional review boards and social science research. Washington, DC: AAUP. Retrieved from

Case study Charles N. Rudick. (2004, September 30). Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved from

Findings of scientific misconduct. (2001, December 13). Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved from

Keogh, B. (2003, September 7). Critics say review panel on human research leans right; Lawmaker doubts scientific integrity. Chicago Tribune, p. A14.

Mann, C. (1997). Radiation: Balancing the record. In D. Elliott & J. Stern (Eds.), Research ethics: A reader (pp. 307-316). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Mello, M., Studdert, D., & Brennan, T. (2003). The rise of litigation in human subjects research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139, 40-45.

Research Ethics
Chapter 4: The Devil is in the Details
Discussion and Reflection Questions
Integration Questions
References and Resources

This chapter addresses research with human subjects, including risks, protections, and policies governing responsible research conduct. Research with animals is also discussed. Upon completion of this chapter we hope that you can identify the ethical issues and complexities in research with humans and animals. We want you to learn about the rules, guidelines, and behaviors associated with responsible research.

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